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JARCP Vol 6, 2018

 

INADEQUACY OF N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID DIETARY INTAKES IN THE GENERAL FRENCH POPULATION OF ELDERLY (65 TO 79 YEARS OLD): THE INCA 2 SURVEY

B. Buaud, J. Tressou, P. Guesnet, N. Simon, S. Pasteau

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2018;7:69-74

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Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intakes in the French elderly population (65 to 79 years old). Design: The study used data on French food consumption issued from 348 elderly of the cross-sectional national French INCA 2 dietary survey performed in 2006 and 2007, combined with the nutritional content of food consumed updated in 2013 by the French Information Center on Food Quality. Results: It was observed for the French elderly population an adequate total fat daily intake and a linoleic acid (LA) daily intake close or superior to the recommended dietary intake (RDI) by the French authorities (from 4.1 to 4.4% of the total energy intake excluding alcohol (EIEA) vs 4% EIEA). By contrast, the French elderly have, regardless of age and gender, a low mean dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) intake equal half of the RDI (0.5% EIEA vs 1% EIEA), and a mean dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake close to two-thirds of the RDI (i.e. from 154 to 167 mg/d vs 250 mg/d). These translated into a LA/ALA ratio between 9.5 and 9.9, twice as high as the recommended threshold inferior to 5, and a mean dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus DHA intake (from 267 to 293 mg/d) slightly more than half of the RDI (500 mg/d). Conclusion: This study supports the need to promote higher intakes of n-3 PUFAs, as well as the setting of specific intake recommendations for these fatty acids for the French elderly population.

CITATION:
B. Buaud ; J. Tressou ; P. Guesnet ; N. Simon ; S. Pasteau (2018): Inadequacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary intakes in the general French population of elderly (65 to 79 years old): the INCA 2 survey. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2018.13

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SARCOPENIA VERSUS DYNAPENIA: FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE AND PHYSICAL DISABILITY IN CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

T. Neves, M. Bomfim Martin Lopes, M.G. Crespilho Souza, E. Ferriolli, C.A. Fett, W.C. Rezende Fett

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2018;7:60-68

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Background: The magnitude of “Sarcopenia” and “Dynapenia” as a public health problem is not well established, nor is the relationship of declines strength and muscle mass to physical disability and/or loss of mobility. Objectives: Test the hypothesis that the elderly with sarcopenia are more likely to physical disability than are those with dynapenia. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting/Participants: A total of 387 older adults (≥65 years old) from the FIBRA Study in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Measurements: Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), which includes the presence of low muscle mass, plus low muscle strength or low physical performance. Dynapenia was defined as handgrip strength <30kgf (men) and <20kgf (women). Data relating to socio-demographic, behavioral, health conditions, physical disability, the level of physical activity, body composition, hand grip strength and the Short Physical Performance Battery were collected. Results: Regarding the loss of mobility, sarcopenia was associated with age ≥75 years, female, sedentary lifestyle, stroke, arthritis, and falls (OR = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.07 – 8.09); with no association for physical disability in BADL and IADL. Dynapenia had no association with loss of mobility; however, for disability in BADL and IADL, it was associated with the elderly aged ≥80 years old and arthritis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.42 – 3.88). Conclusion: Dynapenia is more sensitive to the prevention of future self-reported physical disability, in comparison to sarcopenia which can be used in clinical practice as a screening tool for the early decline in mobility.

CITATION:
T. Neves ; M. Bomfim Martin Lopes ; M.G. Crespilho Souza ; E. Ferriolli ; C.A. Fett ; W.C. Rezende Fett (2018): Sarcopenia versus Dynapenia: Functional Performance and Physical Disability in Cross Sectional Study. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2018.12

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DEFINING SARCOPENIA USING MUSCLE QUALITY INDEX

C.-D. Lee, E. Dierickx

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2018;7:55-59

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Objectives: Although low muscle quality is a strong predictor of sarcopenia, defining sarcopenia using muscle quality remains unknown. This study investigated the cut-points to define sarcopenia using muscle quality index (MQI) in the young reference population. Methods: Fifty healthy young (20 to 29 years) and forty elderly adults (60 to 79 years) were recruited in this study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Hand grip and leg dynamometers were used to measure muscle strengths in the arm and leg. Muscle quality in the arm (MQIArm, kg/kg) and leg (MQILeg, Nm/kg) were computed as muscle strength per lean mass in the arm and leg, respectively. Total muscle quality (MQITotal) was computed as the combination of MQIArm and MQILeg, while standardized muscle quality (MQIStd) was computed as the combination of z-scores in MQIArm and MQILeg. Sarcopenia was defined as ≤2 SD below from the mean values in the young reference group. Results: The cut-points for defining sarcopenia using MQIArm, MQILeg, MQITotal, and MQIStd in men were ≤8.37, ≤12.07, 22.06, and <-3.35, and in women were ≤10.09, ≤13.97, 28.22, and <-2.25, respectively. In the elderly adults, the frequencies of sarcopenia using MQIArm, MQILeg, MQITotal, and MQIStd were 15%, 27.5%, 32.5%, and 35%, respectively. Conclusion: This study establishes new values for defining sarcopenia using MQIs. The proposed new MQI cut-points may be a role in detecting sarcopenia across individual and population level.

CITATION:
C.-D. Lee ; E. Dierickx (2018): Defining Sarcopenia using Muscle Quality Index. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2018.11

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LONG SUN-EXPOSURES INFLUENCING HIGH SUB-CUTANEOUS SYNTHESIS OF VITAMIN-D3 MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH EXACERBATION OF SYMPTOMS IN ALLERGIC-ASTHMA

L.G. D\'Cruz, S.A. Husain, T. Wells, C. Morgan, P.J. Stanczyk, A. Satgunarajah, J. Kashir, B.L. Calver, L.M. Blayney, F.A. Lai

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2018;7:47-54

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Objectives: Does excessive sun-exposure, non-use of sunscreen and/or high doses of vitamin-D3 supplements provoke exacerbation of asthma? Design: Clinical examinations, retrospective records-access and questionnaire surveys were distributed to a convenience sample of allergic-asthma patient (n=183). Setting: Patients (19-89 years) attending the outpatient respiratory clinics at Maidstone Hospital were enrolled. Results: 90.3% of patients (total IgE levels ≥75 kU/L ; n=103) exposed to direct sunlight of ≥ 15 minutes per day continuously for 6-7 days presented with wheeze (χ2(1) = 7.46; p< 0.05) compared to only 9.7% patients of similar atopy-status, presenting with wheeze if exposed to sunlight of < 15 minutes per day for 6-7 days. 68.9% patients (with IgE levels ≥ 75 kU/L ; n=103), non-users of sunscreen (SPF 30 and above), exposed to direct sunlight of ≥ 15 minutes per day continuously for 6-7 days developed a wheeze, compared to fewer users of sunscreen (9.7%, n=103), exposed to the same duration of sunlight who developed asthma symptoms (p< 0.05). Vitamin-D3 supplementation in asthma-patients with clinical signs of hypovitaminosis-D (n=21), produced symptoms of morning chest-tightness (76.2%), allergic rhinitis (61.9%) and wheeze (100%), 2 weeks after initiation of treatment. Conclusions: Our results advocate direct sunlight exposure < 15 minutes per day and use of sunscreen as a novel approach to preventing atopic-asthma symptoms in allergic-asthma patients.. Activated vitamin-D3 is well-recognised to shift the immune-balance towards Th2 predominance, favouring allergic asthma. These results suggest that limiting subcutaneous synthesis of vitamin-D3 in asthma patients and re-addressing dosage of vitamin-D3 supplementation is necessary may contribute to prevent exacerbation of symptoms.

CITATION:
L.G. D'Cruz ; S.A. Husain ; T. Wells ; C. Morgan ; P.J. Stanczyk ; A. Satgunarajah ; J. Kashir ; B.L. Calver ; L.M. Blayney ; F.A. Lai (2018): Long sun-exposures influencing high sub-cutaneous synthesis of vitamin-D3 may be associated with exacerbation of symptoms in allergic-asthma. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2018.10

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GHRELIN ACTIVATION BY INGESTION OF MEDIUM-CHAIN TRIGLYCERIDES IN HEALTHY ADULTS: A PILOT TRIAL

Y. Yoshimura, S. Shimazu, A. Shiraishi, F. Nagano, S. Tominaga, T. Hamada, M. Kudo, Y. Yamasaki, S. Noda, T. Bise

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2018;7:42-46

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Objective: To investigate the efficacy of dietary supplementation of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and its effects on ghrelin activation in healthy adults. Methods: The present study examined two protocols with six healthy volunteers: 1) 12-hour profiles of the plasma levels of acylated and desacyl ghrelin without MCT ingestion, and 2) changes in serum ghrelin levels after oral ingestion of 45 g/day of MCTs for 1 week. Results: At baseline, serum acylated and desacyl ghrelin levels were 18.2±10.3 and 77.1±23.4 fmol/mL, respectively. The ratio of acylated/desacyl ghrelin was 19%. There were no significant differences in the 12-hour profiles of acylated and desacyl ghrelin. Significant increases were observed in all sampling times of serum acylated ghrelin after 1-week MCTs ingestion. The ratio of acylated/desacyl ghrelin increased to 37.7%. Conclusions: Oral ingestion of MCTs increased serum acylated ghrelin levels in healthy adults, suggesting that MCTs administration stimulates food intake.

CITATION:
Y. Yoshimura ; S. Shimazu ; A. Shiraishi ; F. Nagano ; S. Tominaga ; T. Hamada ; M. Kudo ; Y. Yamasaki ; S. Noda ; T. Bise (2018): Ghrelin activation by ingestion of medium-chain triglycerides in healthy adults: A pilot trial. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2018.9

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POOR BODY COMPOSITION IN PATIENTS WITH MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT COMPARED TO HEALTHY OLDER CONTROLS

J. Willers, A. Hahn, T. Köbe, S. Gellert, V. Witte, V. Tesky, J. Pantel, A. Flöel, J.P. Schuchardt

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2018;7:37-41

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In this cross-sectional study, body composition of fifty-eight mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients (single and multiple domain) and fifty healthy older control subjects by the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was assessed. Measurements were: height, weight, body mass index, BIA: phase angle (PA), total body water (TBW), lean body mass (LBM), body cell mass (BCM), extracellular mass (ECM), body fat mass (BFM), apolipoprotein E4, and physical activity level. Compared to BIA reference values and healthy subjects, MCI patients had significant differences in PA (only female), BCM and ECM/BCM index. Differences were more pronounced in females compared to males. The low levels of BCM and PA suggest that MCI patients, especially of female sex, have a poor nutritional status. BIA-derived PA might be a suitable indicator, that could enhance evaluation of nutritional status in patients with cognitive decline.

CITATION:
J. Willers ; A. Hahn ; T. Köbe ; S. Gellert ; V. Witte ; V. Tesky ; J. Pantel ; A. Flöel ; J.P. Schuchardt (2018): Poor body composition in patients with mild cognitive impairment compared to healthy older controls. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2018.8

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EFFECTS OF ONCE-DAILY VERSUS TWICE DAILY DOSING OF CALCIUM FRUCTOBORATE ON KNEE DISCOMFORT. A 90 DAY, DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO CONTROLLED RANDOMIZED CLINICAL STUDY

Z. Pietrzkowski, A. Roldán Mercado-Sesma, R. Argumedo, M. Cervantes, B. Nemzer, T. Reyes-Izquierdo

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2018;7:31-36

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Importance: Previous research showed that a twice-daily 108 mg dose of calcium fructoborate (CFB) improved knee discomfort during a 2-week supplementation period. This current double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study investigates the effects of CFB supplementation on knee discomfort during 90 days of supplementation. Purpose: To evaluate the comparative effects of once-daily and twice-daily dosing of calcium fructoborate on knee joint discomfort for ninety days. Design: 120 participants with self-reported knee discomfort were recruited and randomized into three groups (each N=40). Participants received: 108 mg CFB twice per day (CFB-G1); or, 216 mg CFB in a single dose (CFB-G2); or, placebo. Setting: Subjects were recruited through advertisement in local papers. The researchers assessed intake and within-study levels of knee discomfort by using the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and the Western Ontario and McMaster University Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Results: 62 female and 59 male subjects completed the study. Subjects’ average age was (52.84 ± 8.19 years) and average BMI was (26.76 ± 2.50 kg/m2). Statistical differences between groups were calculated using a two-sided, two-sample t-test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to estimate within-group changes in mean WOMAC and MPQ scores as well as against the control group. When compared to placebo, CFB-G1 showed a significant decrease in reported discomfort on day 14 (P=0.02,) day 30 (P=0.003), day 60 (P<0.0001) and day 90 (P<0.0001) according to WOMAC Scores. A similar decrease was observed for CFB-G2 WOMAC Scores on day 14 (P=0.02), day 30 (P=0.0003), day 60 (P<0.0001) and day 90 (P<0.0001). When compared to placebo, the MPQ score for CFB-G1 group decreased on day 7 (P=0.002), day 14 (P=0.001), day 30 (P<0.0001), day 60 (P<0.0001) and day 90 (P<0.0001). MPQ score decreases were also observed for CFB-G2 group on day 7 (P=0.02), day 14 (P=0.01), day 30 (P<0.0001), day 60 (P<0.0001) and day 90 (P<0.0001). When comparing CFB-G1 and CFB-G2, no significant differences were observed. Importantly, no changes were observed in the WOMAC and MPQ scores within the placebo group. Conclusion: Both CFB groups showed early and significantly improved levels of knee comfort. Knee comfort continued to significantly improve throughout the duration of this 90-day study. No significant differences were observed between the once-daily and the twice–daily doses of CFB.

CITATION:
Z. Pietrzkowski ; A. Roldán Mercado-Sesma ; R. Argumedo ; M. Cervantes ; B. Nemzer ; T. Reyes-Izquierdo (2018): Effects of once-daily versus twice daily dosing of Calcium Fructoborate on knee discomfort. A 90 day, double-blind, placebo controlled randomized clinical study. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2018.7

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SENILE ANOREXIA AND HYPERALDOSTERONISM

D. Schwerthöffer, T. Grimmer, I. Bauer

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2018;7:27-30

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Objective and Method: A case presentation of a 73-year-old delirious patient diagnosed with hyperaldosteronism and Anorexia Nervosa. A possible pathophysiological relationship between a decades-long uncontrolled eating disorder (so called Senile Anorexia) and a resulting transformation of the adrenal gland is discussed. Results and Conclusion: Senile anorexia can remain undetected for decades only to then manifest itself through somatic complications, e.g. symptoms of hyperaldosteronism. In older, underweight patients with unclear neuropsychiatric symptoms, the diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa should be considered.

CITATION:
D. Schwerthöffer ; T. Grimmer ; I. Bauer (2018): Senile Anorexia and Hyperaldosteronism. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2018.6

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DO MULTIPLE CHRONIC CONDITIONS INFLUENCE PERSONAL VIEWS ON THE AGEING PROCESS? A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

R.E. Pel-Littel, M. van Rijn, P.W. Vermunt, J.C.M. van Weert, M.M. Minkman, G. ter Riet, W.J. Scholte op Reimer, B.M. Buurman

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2018;7:20-26

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Objectives: For older persons with two or more chronic diseases (multiple chronic conditions) insight into what they perceive as important in their lives is essential when discussing preferences in the shared decision making process. The aims of this study were to 1) investigate the personal views on the ageing process communicated by older persons and 2) compare the personal views of older persons with and without multiple chronic conditions. Design: Using structured interviews participants were asked five questions about what they perceived as important in terms of ageing, worries, their future, healthy ageing and quality of life. Two independent researchers coded the data and performed content analyses. A stratified content analysis was performed to explore whether persons with and without multiple chronic conditions expressed different personal views with regard to the ageing process. Participants & setting: 547 community dwelling older persons aged 70 years and above. Results: The mean (SD) age was 78.9 (5.9) years, and 60.3% were female. Multiple chronic conditions were present in 72% of the study sample. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between persons with and without multiple chronic conditions . However persons with multiple chronic conditions more often had polypharmacy (43% vs 24%; p<0.001), more difficulties with (instrumental) activities of daily living (mean number of impairments 2.4 vs 0.8; p< 0.001) and reported more falls (35% vs 23% p = 0.01) than those without multiple chronic conditions. The qualitative analysis identified the following main themes: ageing was associated with acceptance of ageing, (further) deterioration and worries about limitations and family. A healthy lifestyle, keeping busy, maintaining social contacts and a positive attitude were considered prerequisites to healthy ageing. In 24 out of 28 sub-themes no significant differences were found between participants with and without multiple chronic conditions (MCC). Persons with multiple chronic conditions more often expressed that ageing for them meant having to cope with deterioration and limitations, they had more worries and feared more deteriorations compared to those without multiple chronic conditions. Also persons with multiple chronic conditions less often considered a positive attitude to life a prerequisite to healthy ageing. Conclusions: Acceptance of ageing, (further) deterioration and worries about limitations and family were important themes on the ageing process communicated by older persons. Overall, we found no major differences between persons with and without multiple chronic conditions. The results of this study may help raising awareness amongst health care professionals that eliciting and understanding an older persons’ views on the ageing process is an important first step in making health decisions that support older persons’ personal goals and expectations.

CITATION:
R.E. Pel-Littel ; M. van Rijn ; P.W. Vermunt ; J.C.M. van Weert ; M.M. Minkman ; G. ter Riet ; W.J. Scholte op Reimer ; B.M. Buurman (2018): Do multiple chronic conditions influence personal views on the ageing process? A qualitative analysis. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2018.5

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OIL OR FLAXSEED FLOUR REDUCES PANCREATIC ISLET AREA BUT DOES NOT AFFECT SERUM INSULIN, AT WEANING, IN MALE WISTAR RATS

A. D’Avila Pereira, D. Cavalcante Ribeiro, A. de Sousa dos Santos, B. Ferolla da Camara Boueri, C. Ribeiro Pessanha, M. Duque Coutinho de Abreu, L. Pessoa Rozeno, C. Cristina Alves do Nascimento-Saba, L. Guillermo Coca Velarde, C.A. Soares da Costa, Gilson Teles Boaventura

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2018;7:17-19

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The aim of the present study evaluated the influence of oil or flaxseed flour in pancreas morphology of pups, whose mothers were fed with oil or flaxseed flour during lactation, at weaning. After birth, the lactating rat males were randomly assigned: control (C, n=12 pups), flaxseed oil (FO, n=12 pups) and flaxseed flour (FF, n=12). At 21 days, the pups were weaning and anesthetized. Body mass, length, serum glucose, insulin, pancreas mass and pancreatic islet area were assessed. FO and FF showed higher (p<0.05) mass and length and lower glucose (p<0.05) when compared with C. Insulin (p=0.094) and pancreas mass (p=0.054) not differ between groups. FO and FF showed lower (p<0.05) pancreatic islet area when compared with C. A fed with FO or FF, during lactation may improve function pancreatic, as insulin sensitivity. These findings emphasize that oil or flaxseed flour during lactation may improve pancreatic function in early life.

CITATION:
A. D’Avila Pereira ; D. Cavalcante Ribeiro ; A. de Sousa dos Santos ; B. Ferolla da Camara Boueri ; C. Ribeiro Pessanha ; M. Duque Coutinho de Abreu ; L. Pessoa Rozeno ; C. Cristina Alves do Nascimento-Saba ; L. Guillermo Coca Velarde ; C.A. Soares da Costa ; Gilson Teles Boaventura (2018): Oil or flaxseed flour reduces pancreatic islet area but does not affect serum insulin, at weaning, in male Wistar rats. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2018.4

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FIT & STRONG! PLUS: DESCRIPTIVE DEMOGRAPHIC AND RISK CHARACTERISTICS IN A COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS TRIAL FOR OLDER AFRICAN-AMERICAN ADULTS WITH OSTEOARTHRITIS

M. L Fitzgibbon, L. Tussing-Humphreys, L. Schiffer, R. Smith-Ray, A.D. Demott, M. Martinez, M.L. Berbaum, G.M. Huber, S.L. Hughes

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2018;7:9-16

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Objectives: The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) has increased in the US. We report on a comparative effectiveness trial that compares Fit & Strong!, an existing evidence-based physical activity (PA) program, to Fit & Strong! Plus, which combines the Fit & Strong! intervention with a weight management intervention. Methods: Participants included 413 overweight/obese (BMI 25-50 kg/m²) adults with lower extremity (LE) OA. The majority of the sample was African-American and female. Both interventions met 3 times weekly for 8 weeks. Primary measures included diet and weight. Results: The baseline mean BMI for all participants was 34.8 kg/m², percentage of calories from fat was high, and self-reported PA was low. Discussion: This sample of overweight/obese African-American adults had lifestyle patterns at baseline that were less than healthful, and there were differences between self-report and performance-based measures as a function of age.

CITATION:
M. L Fitzgibbon ; L. Tussing-Humphreys ; L. Schiffer ; R. Smith-Ray ; A.D. Demott ; M. Martinez ; M.L. Berbaum ; G.M. Huber ; S.L. Hughes (2018): Fit & Strong! Plus: Descriptive demographic and risk characteristics in a comparative effectiveness trial for older African-American adults with osteoarthritis. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2018.3

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A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ON FACTORS INFLUENCING THE HEALTHY AGING: A KOREAN PERSPECTIVE

J.H. Park, Y.J. Park

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2018;7:3-8

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An increasing number of researches on gerontology has emphasized an aging process without impairments of physical and/or cognitive function, alongside with an increase of life expectancy. However, studies to date on a healthy aging have suggested limited information on normal and usual aging in an inconsistent manner. Here, we review characteristics to define a healthy aging and, moreover, suggest effective elements to achieve the healthy aging through systematic review. Based on two databases including RISS and PUPMED, we collected original articles showing links between health-related traits and associated factors in Korean population aged 65 years or older. After screening the titles and abstracts, full texts of 186 articles were reviewed, and the remaining 109 papers meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed to extract aging characteristics and factors of healthy aging. Here, we focus on two themes: 1) definition of a healthy aging and 2) effective determinants influencing the healthy aging. Our results suggest that a healthy aging is a multidisciplinary concept involving objective, subjective and comprehensive definitions. We classify the healthy aging-associated factors into physical, emotional, mental, social and economic domains, and identify that dietary patterns and nutrients among the multi-layer elements become good modifiable factor to achieve the healthy aging.

CITATION:
J.H. Park ; Y.J. Park (2018): A systematic review on factors influencing the healthy aging: A Korean perspective. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2018.2

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NUTRITIONAL AND NONNUTRITIONAL FACTORS WITH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS ON THE EYE HEALTH BASED ON IRANIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

S. Parvinroo

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2018;7:1-2

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CITATION:
S. Parvinroo (2018): Nutritional and nonnutritional factors with positive and negative effects on the eye health based on Iranian Traditional Medicine. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2018.1

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