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JARCP Vol 8, 2019



Y. van Gils, E. Franck, S.J.P. van Alphen, E. Dierckx

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2019;8:28-38

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Objective: This study examine the prevalence, characteristics and associated factors of alcohol use and alcohol related problems among Belgian community dwelling older adults. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study by extensive examination survey. Setting: The participants were questioned in their homes or in community centres. Participants: Overall, 1,366 adults ≥65 years participated in this study. Method: Information about self-reported alcohol use during the past year, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) and alcohol related problems was gathered with respectively the AUDIT, SF36 and MAST-G. Results: Of the total sample, 84.4% reported alcohol consumption. Using the NIAAA guidelines, the overall prevalence for at risk drinking was 26.6% and for binge drinking 14.8%, both risky alcohol patterns. Logistic regression analyses were performed on the drinking sample to determine the predictors associated with at risk drinking, binge drinking and hazardous drinking. Being male, a smoker of former smoker and living alone were associated with at risk drinking. Being male, being aged 65-74 years, being a smoker, reporting polypharmacy, MCS and having recent loss experience were associated with binge drinking. More than 25% of respondents were classified as hazardous drinking (score ≥5 on MAST-G). Associated factors with hazardous drinking were being male, having a family history of alcohol problems, PCS and MCS. Conclusions: The prevalence rates for at risk alcohol patterns and alcohol related problems were higher than in previous studies. As older adults are more vulnerable to the adverse consequences of alcohol use, awareness about alcohol use should be raised among older adults, as well as amongst health care givers and researchers.

Y. van Gils ; E. Franck ; S.J.P. van Alphen ; E. Dierckx (2019): Prevalence and characteristics associated with alcohol use and alcohol related problems in community dwelling older adults. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2019.6

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G. Webb, T.A. Clemons

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2019;8:27

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G. Webb ; T.A. Clemons (2019): Amyloidβ, APP, and Discoveries in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2019.5

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Z.K. Adhana, G.H. Tessema, G.A. Getie

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2019;8:20-26

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Background: Malnutrition is defined as a disproportion of nutrients caused by either an excess intake of nutrients or a nutritional deficit. One of the most common nutritional problems in older people (aged 60 years and over) is under nutrition. Worldwide studies revealed that the prevalence of under nutrition in people of old age is high. Objective: To assess the prevalence of under nutrition and its associated factors among old people in Debre Markos town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2015. Methods and materials: A cross sectional study design was conducted among 423 study subjects of old age in Debre Markos town from August 4 to August 30, 2015. Primary data was collected using a pre tested Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (MNA-SF) screening tool and structured questionnaires by trained data collectors. The data that was collected was entered and cleaned using EpiData version 3.1 statistical software then exported to the SPSS version 20 statistical package for further data analysis. Descriptive statistics of frequency, tables and graphs were used and summary measures were calculated to determine the prevalence of under nutrition. The data was also used to describe the distribution of the independent variables among study subjects. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios in order to identify factors associated with under nutrition of study participants at 0.05 level of significance. Result: The prevalence of under nutrition among study participants was found to be 22.7% (95%CI 18.7-26.7). A number of independent variables have a significant association with under nutrition, including gender (females (AOR 7.95 95% CI (2.86, 22.08)), age (Oldest Old and Middle Old, (AOR=3.45 95%CI (1.44, 8.26) and (AOR=5.25, 95%CI (2.48, 11.13) respectively), marital status (widowed elderly individuals (ARO 3.29 95 % CI (1.54, 7.06)), individuals with eating difficulty (AOR 10.73 95 % CI (4.49, 25.63), individuals with vision problems (AOR 5.67 95 % CI (2.80, 11.48) and meal frequency (ARO 6.71 95 % CI (3.31, 13.63). Conclusion and recommendation: Prevalence of under nutrition among study participants was 22.7%. Gender, age, marital status, eating difficulty, visual problems and meal frequency were found to be independent determinant factors of under nutrition among study subjects. The government, family members and other stakeholders should give more attention to older individuals especially older females.

Z.K. Adhana ; G.H. Tessema ; G.A. Geti (2019): Prevalence of under nutrition and Associated Factors among People of Old Age in Debre Markos Town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2015. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2019.4

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J. Ares Blanco, L. Moreno Díaz, E. Fernández-Fernández, A.J. López-Alba

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2019;8:15-19

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Background: There is an association between malnutrition and mortality. However, it is unclear if this association is truly independent of confounding factors. Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate nutritional status, defined according to the three categories defined in the Nutritional Screening Tool “Mini Nutritional Assessment”, and to investigate its prognostic involvement. Design, Setting and Participants: Single cohort retrospective observational study in hospitalized patients between December 2013 and January 2014, who were placed under observation until September 2015 (21 months) (n=144). Nutritional status was determined by MNA short form at the beginning of the study, as well as clinical and epidemiological data. Results: Based on categories defined by MNA SF, 59 (40.97%) were well nourished, 55 (38.19%) were at risk of malnutrition, and 30 (20.83%) patients showed malnutrition. 45 patients died during follow up (31.25%). Of them, 40% (18) were malnourished, 38% (17), at risk of malnutrition, and 22% (9), well nourished. After adjusting for confounding factors, hazard ratio (95% CI) for all-cause mortality was significantly greater in the malnourished group (3.44 (1,27-9,31: p 0,015)), comparing to the reference group (well-nourished patients). Conclusions: Nutritional status defined according to the 3 categories defined in MNA short form predicts the probability of mid-term death in hospitalized patients, after adjusting for confounding factors as age and comorbidities. These data show the importance of knowing nutritional status during hospitalization for avoiding potential complications and helping the patient to overcome them.

J. Ares Blanco ; L. Moreno Díaz ; E. Fernández-Fernández ; A.J. López-Alba (2019): EVALUATION OF INPATIENTS' NUTRITIONAL STATUS. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2019.3

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L. McKeever, I.C. Farrar, S. Sulo, J. Partridge, P. Sheean, M. Fitzgibbon

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2019;8:7-14

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Background: Older adults (65 years and older) comprise a high-risk group that are susceptible to the development of malnutrition. Dietary intake and diet quality represent key modifiable risk factors to help prevent and to treat declines in nutrition status, with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) often being a cost-effective therapy for many to increase protein and caloric intake. The DETERMINE Checklist offers a series of questions capable of mapping the initial landscape of contextual factors that influence the dietary patterns of the at-risk populations. Objectives: To examine independent predictors of inadequate dietary intake and poor diet quality amongst a multi-ethnic sample of urban community-dwelling older adults in an effort to identify target groups of participants that could benefit most from an ONS intervention. Design: Cross-sectional. Participants: Chicago, Illinois, United States urban residents greater than 55 years of age who self-reported to be non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, or Hispanic. Methods: Telephone surveys were conducted to obtain basic demographic information. The DETERMINE Checklist was administered to (1) characterize participants’ nutritional risk, and (2) identify participants with inadequate intake and/or poor diet quality. Predictors of inadequate intake, defined as any participant who reported either to eat less than two meals per day and/or poor diet quality, defined as any participant who reported to eat few fruits, vegetables or dairy were used to identify groups of participants who could benefit most from ONS consumption. Mantel-Hanzel chi square, Breslow-day tests, and logistic regressions were conducted. Results: 1001 ethnically diverse participants were interviewed (37% non-Hispanic White, 37% non-Hispanic Black, and 26% Hispanic). Respondents were predominantly female (69%) with a mean age of 66.9 (± 6.4) years. The majority were found to be at either moderate or high nutrition risk (78.7%). Domains of the DETERMINE Checklist that predicted either inadequate dietary intake or poor diet quality included social isolation, lower levels of educational attainment, food insecurity, limitations in activities of daily living (ADL), polypharmacy, or three or more alcoholic drinks per day. Of the participants who met the criteria as those who would benefit from ONS, less than 50% had reported consuming ONS in the past six months. Conclusion: Older community-dwelling adults living in an urban setting, especially those with social isolation, lower levels of education, food insecurity, limitations with ADLs, polypharmacy, and those reporting heavy alcohol intake represent a population who could benefit from consuming ONS. Efforts should be made towards further understanding these contextual factors and providing nutrition education along with an ONS intervention that could be beneficial to supplement dietary inadequacies in this population.

L. McKeever ; I.C. Farrar ; S. Sulo ; J. Partridge ; P. Sheean ; M. Fitzgibbon (2019): Nutritional Adequacy and Oral Nutritional Supplementation in Older Community-Dwelling Adults. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2019.2

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K. Kinoshita, S. Satake, Y. Matsui, S. Kawashima, H. Arai

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2019;8:1-6

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Objectives: To evaluate the effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on muscle strength, physical performance, and muscle mass without additional exercise training in older adults with low physical function. Design: Randomized, controlled trial (Open-label study). Setting: Outpatients. Participants: 34 senior outpatients with low physical function who do not exercise regularly. Intervention: 2.4 g of HMB (3.0 g of calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate [CaHMB]) per day was given for 60 days, and subjects in the control group were asked to engage in daily activities as normal. Measurements: Weakness or low function was defined by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria, then the participants were assigned to the HMB group or the control group. All participants underwent several evaluations such as grip strength, the timed up and go test, the 5-times chair stand test (5CS), and skeletal muscle mass index by the bioimpedance method at baseline and at the end of intervention or control period. Results: An intragroup comparison of pre- to post-treatment values showed significant improvement in grip strength and the 5CS in the HMB group (grip strength: HMB, 16.6±6.1 kg to 18.2±6.4 kg, P=.001; control, 16.5±4.3 kg to 16.7±4.7 kg, P=.729; 5CS: HMB, 11.0 [8.8-13.0] s to 10.1 [8.5-12.6] s, P=.011; control, 11.1 [8.6-13.8] s to 10.0 [8.8-11.3] s, P=.246). Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) used to compare the HMB and control groups showed a significant improvement in grip strength in the HMB group compared with the control group (P=.029). Conclusion: A supplementation of HMB without additional exercise may improve muscle strength in older patients with low muscle strength.

K. Kinoshita ; S. Satake ; Y. Matsui ; S. Kawashima ; H. Arai (2019): Effect of β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on muscle strength in older adults with low physical function . The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2019.1

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