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JARLIFE Vol 11, 2022

 

UTILITY OF POLYGENIC RISK SCORING TO PREDICT COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AS MEASURED BY PRECLINICAL ALZHEIMER COGNITIVE COMPOSITE SCORE

Q. Gao, P. Daunt, A.M. Gibson, R.J. Pither, for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2022;11:1-8

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Background: The utility of Polygenic Risk Scores (PRS) is gaining increasing attention for generating an individual genetic risk profile to predict subsequent likelihood of future onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), especially those carry two copies of the APOE E3 allele, currently considered at neutral risk in all populations studied. Objectives: To access the performance of PRS in predicting individuals whilst pre-symptomatic or with mild cognitive impairment who are at greatest risk of progression of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s Disease from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) as measured by the Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite (PACC) score profile. Design: A longitudinal analysis of data from the ADNI study conducted across over 50 sites in the US and Canada. Setting: Multi-centre genetics study. Participants: 594 subjects either APOE E3 homozygotes or APOE E3/E4 heterozygotes who upon entry to the study were diagnosed as cognitively normal or with mild cognitive impairment. Measurements: Use of genotyping and/or whole genome sequencing data to calculate polygenic risk scores and assess its ability to predict subsequent cognitive decline as measured by PACC over 5 years. Results: Assessing both cognitively normal and mild cognitive impaired subjects using a PRS threshold of greater than 0.6, the high genetic risk participant group declined more than the low risk group over 5 years as measured by PACC score (PACC score reduced by time). Conclusions: Our findings have shown that polygenic risk score provides a promising tool to identify those with higher risk to decline over 5 years regardless of their APOE alleles according to modified PACC profile, especially its ability to identify APOE3/E3 cognitively normal individuals who are at most risk for early cognitive decline. This genotype accounts for approximately 60% of the general population and 35% of the AD population but currently would not be considered at higher risk without access to expensive or invasive biomarker testing.

CITATION:
Q. Gao ; P. Daunt ; A.M. Gibson ; R.J. Pither ; for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (2022): Utility of Polygenic Risk Scoring to Predict Cognitive Impairment as Measured by Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite Score. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2022.1

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CLINICAL RATINGS OF WHITE MATTER HYPERINTENSITIES, HIPPOCAMPAL RATINGS, AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING FROM THE CACHE COUNTY MEMORY STUDY

T.J. Farrer, E.D. Bigler, Y.H.W. Tsui-Caldwell, T.J. Abildskov, J.A.T. Tschanz, M.C. Norton, K.A. Welsh-Bohmer

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2022;11:9-13

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Objective: White matter burden and medial temporal atrophy are associated with cognitive health. A large epidemiological database, such as the Cache County Memory Study (CCMS), can provide additional insight into how visual clinical ratings of brain structural integrity predict cognition in older adults. Method: We used the Scheltens Ratings Scale to quantify white matter lesion burden and medial temporal atrophy in the CCMS sample to determine if these qualitative markers are predictive of memory function. We performed clinical ratings of MRI scans across two ascertainment periods among 187 community-dwelling older adults and correlated these ratings with MMSE, CERAD memory performance, and general cognitive ability. Results: Higher Scheltens ratings measuring white matter and basal ganglia hyperintensities were associated with lower memory performance (r = 0.21). The strongest correlations were observed between medial temporal atrophy and general cognition performance (r = 0.32). Conclusions: The current findings support previous research that the integrity of different regions of the brain correlate to function in a meaningful way.

CITATION:
T.J. Farrer ; E.D. Bigler ; Y.H.W. Tsui-Caldwell ; T.J. Abildskov ; J.A.T. Tschanz ; M.C. Norton ; K.A. Welsh-Bohmer (2022): Clinical Ratings of White Matter Hyperintensities, Hippocampal Ratings, and Neuropsychological Functioning from the Cache County Memory Study. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2022.2

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SOCIAL WELL-BEING, PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS, AND CHRONIC CONDITIONS AMONG OLDER ADULTS

J. Min, Y-C. Yeh, I.S. Harvey

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2022;11:14-19

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Abstract: Background: Aging is characterized by the decline in physical health, functional status, and loss of social roles and relationships that can challenge the quality of life. Social well-being may help explain how aging individuals experience declining physical health and social relationships. Despite the high prevalence of chronic conditions among older adults, research exploring the relationship between social well-being and chronic disease is sparse. Objectives: The study aims were to investigate the relationship between social well-being and psychological factors (e.g., perceived control, life satisfaction, self-esteem, active coping, optimism, and religious coping) by chronic condition in older adults. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: The current study comprises older adults (N = 1,251, aged ≥ 65 y) who participated in the third wave of the National Survey of Midlife in the United States (i.e., MIDUS). Setting: MIDUS was conducted on a random-digit-dial sample of community-dwelling, English-speaking adults. Measurements: Six instruments representing psychological resources (life satisfaction, perceived control, self-esteem, optimism, active coping, and religious coping) and five dimensions of social well-being (social actualization, social coherence, social acceptance, social contribution, social integration) were measured. An index of chronic disease comprised of self-reported data whether they had received a physician’s diagnosis for any chronic conditions over the past year. Results: The findings indicated that the individuals without chronic conditions had significantly higher social integration, social acceptance, and social contribution scores than the individuals with chronic conditions (t = 2.26, p < 0.05, t = 2.85, p < 0.01, and t = 2.23, p < 0.05, respectively). For individuals diagnosed with more than one chronic condition, perceived control, self-esteem, and optimism were positively related to their social well-being (β = .33, p < .001, β = .17, p < .001, and β = .33, p < .001, respectively). Conclusion: Findings suggested that older adults with multiple chronic conditions have a decrease in social well-being. Chronic disease management programs may help increase social well-being among individuals with multiple chronic conditions.

CITATION:
J. Min ; Y-C. Yeh ; I.S. Harvey ; (2022): Social Well-Being, Psychological Factors, and Chronic Conditions among Older Adults. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2022.3

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SEASONAL CHANGES IN MIDLIFE WOMEN’S PERCENTAGE BODY FAT: A 1-YEAR COHORT STUDY

A.M. Nelson, S.L. Casperson, L. Jahns, D.G. Palmer, J.N. Roemmich

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2022;11:20-25

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Objective: The purpose of this longitudinal, observational study was to examine whether age and seasonal changes in sedentary activity (sedAct), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and energy intake (EI) predict changes in body composition among midlife women. We hypothesized that reductions in MVPA and increases in sedAct and EI in winter, along with greater baseline age would predict increases in percentage body fat (%BF) across seasons. Design: This study used a longitudinal, within-subjects design. Setting: This study took place in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Participants: Participants included 52 midlife women (aged 40-60 years) who were observed over the course of one year. Measurements: Percentage body fat measures were obtained via whole body Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry. Participants were scanned once per season. We measured EI using the ASA24®. We used a GTX3 accelerometer to measure physical activity. Each season, participants wore the monitors for 7 days, 12 hours per day. All measures began in summer. Results: Results of hierarchical multiple regression (MR) analyses showed that age increases (β = 0.310, p = 0.021) and summer-to-fall increases in EI (β = 0.427, p = 0.002) predicted seasonal increases in %BF (R2 = .36, F(5, 42) = 4.66, p = 0.02). Changes in MVPA and sedAct were not significant predictors. Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that summer (M = 37.7263, 95% CI [35.8377, 39.6149]) to winter (M = 38.1463, 95% CI [36.1983, 40.0942]) increases in %BF are not reversed by spring (M = 37.8761, 95% CI [35.9365, 39.8157]). Conclusions: To minimize increases in %BF and maintain health, midlife women, particularly older women, should be encouraged to pay extra attention to their diet in the fall months.

CITATION:
A.M. Nelson ; S.L. Casperson ; L. Jahns ; D.G. Palmer ; J.N. Roemmich ; (2022): Seasonal Changes in Midlife Women’s Percentage Body Fat: A 1-Year Cohort Study. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2022.4

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IDENTIFYING FRAILTY IN THERMAL/SPA CLINICAL SETTING: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

C. Jeandel, T. Hanh

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2022;11:26-30

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Background: No investigation has assessed frailty in the clinical setting of thermal/spa facilities, which often receive older patients with osteo-articular and musculoskeletal conditions. Objective: To examine the prevalence of frailty in older adults receiving thermal/spa treatment and to gather preliminary evidence about the feasibility of integrating geriatric assessments, including frailty, in the routine clinical consultations in spa facilities. Methods: Mixed design, with a quantitative cross-sectional investigation performed among 197 volunteer patients (mean age 73.2 ± 6.4 years-old; 82.2% women) of seven French thermal/spa facilities and a qualitative investigation (semi-structured interviews) with the nine physicians working in the participating facilities. Frailty was defined according to a modified Fried frailty phenotype based on six self-reported criteria (including mobility impairment, nutritional status, and fatigue): individuals meeting ≥3 criteria were considered frail; 1-2 criteria, pre-frail; no criterion, robust. Interviews with the participating physicians on the feasibility of integrating geriatric assessments in routine clinical consultations at spa facilities were recorded and their content, analyzed. Results: Frailty was detected in 112 individuals (56.9%), 26 (13.2%) were considered pre-frail, and 59 (29.9%), robust. Regarding the interviews, three physicians indicated the geriatric assessments could be integrated in the routine spa consultations; two, in the consultations of specific/targeted patients, but not in routine; two, only in the context of health education; two, in the context of research protocols. The content of interviews highlighted geriatric assessments provided a better overview of the health/clinical status of the patients. Conclusion: Frailty is very prevalent in older patients of spa facilities. Such facilities may constitute an interesting clinical setting for screening for frailty through the implementation of geriatric assessments.

CITATION:
C. Jeandel ; T. Hanh ; (2022): Identifying frailty in thermal/spa clinical setting: a cross-sectional study. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2022.5

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EFFECTS OF CONTROLLED WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BALANCE AND FALL OUTCOMES AMONG HEALTHY OLDER ADULTS: A 6-WEEK PILOT STUDY

F. Saucedo, E.A. Chavez, H.R. Vanderhoof, V.N. Pradeep Ambati, .D. Eggleston

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2022;11:31-37

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Background: Falling is the second leading cause of injury-related death worldwide and is a leading cause of injury among older adults. Whole-body vibration has been used to improve balance and reduce fall risk in older adults. No study has assessed if vibration benefits can be retained over time. Objectives: The aims of this study were to examine if six-weeks of whole-body vibration could improve balance and fall outcomes, and to assess if benefits associated with the training program could be sustained two months following the final training session. Design and Setting: Repeated measures randomized controlled design. Participants: Twenty-four independent living older adults were recruited and were randomly assigned to the whole-body vibration or control group. Intervention: Participants performed three sessions of whole-body vibration training per week with a vibration frequency of 20 Hz or with only an audio recording of the vibration noise. An assessment of balance and fall outcomes was performed prior to, immediately following, and two-months after the completion of the training program. Main Outcome Measures: Composite balance scores from the Berg Balance Scale and treadmill fall rates were assessed pre-training, post-training, and two-months post-training. Results. Seventeen participants completed the study. No between groups differences were found (p<0.05) in the measures of balance or fall rates. Conclusions: Findings revealed that six weeks of whole-body vibration was not effective in improving balance scores or fall rates.

CITATION:
F. Saucedo ; E.A. Chavez ; H.R. Vanderhoof ; V.N. Pradeep Ambati ; J.D. Eggleston ; (2022): Effects of controlled whole-body vibration training on balance and fall outcomes among healthy older adults: a 6-week pilot study. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2022.6

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MODELLING THE PAN-EUROPEAN ECONOMIC BURDEN OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

R. Martins, M. Urbich, K. Brännvall, M. Gianinazzi, J.E. Ching, C.P. Khoury, Y.H. El-Hayek

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2022;11:38-46

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Background: Recent advances open the opportunity of altering the course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) through lifestyle-based modifications and novel therapies. Ensuring that society is investing limited budgets in the interventions that have the greatest potential to generate tangible impact will require tools to guide policymakers. Objectives: To build on previous studies to develop an economic model that estimates the societal burden of AD and evaluates the potential impact of novel interventions in six large European countries. Design: AD progression was modelled using a published Markov structure with a 40-year time horizon to estimate lifetime costs and life years in a cohort aged 65 years and above diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI-AD) in 2020. Demographic projections were utilized to estimate the prevalence of MCI-AD up to 2100, total corresponding costs and life years. The model allows a comparison of costs associated with the introduction of a hypothetical new disease-modifying therapy that slows disease progression between MCI-AD and all AD-Dementia stages as well as a ‘delayed onset’ scenario where disease progression is halted at the MCI-AD stage, potentially occurring, for example, through lifestyle-based modifications. Results: The 2022 present value of total lifetime costs for this cohort moving through all disease stages is ~€1.2T. Approximately 80% of the present value of lifetime costs in our model are driven by informal care and non-medical direct costs. Our model suggests that a 25% and 50% reduction in disease progression compared to natural history could translate into a present value of cost savings of €33.7B and €72.7B. Halting MCI-AD progression for 3 years with no therapeutic effect thereafter resulted in a present value cost savings of €84.7B in savings. Conclusions: Our data further suggest that early intervention via disease-modifying therapies or lifestyle-based modifications in AD could result in cost savings for society. Additionally, our findings reinforce the importance of accounting for the full value of innovative interventions, management and care paradigms, including their potential impact on direct, indirect and intangible costs impacting patients, their care partners and health and social care systems. R. Martins ; M. Urbich ; K. Brännvall ; M. Gianinazzi ; J.E. Ching ; C.P. Khoury ; Y.H. El-Hayek ; (2022): Modelling the Pan-European Economic Burden of Alzheimer’s Disease. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2022.7

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