BREAKFAST AND READY-TO-EAT CEREAL CONSUMPTION ARE ASSOCIATED WITH IMPROVED MARKERS OF CARDIOMETABOLIC HEALTH IN ADULTS: RESULTS FROM THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY 2001 - 2008
C.R. McGill, L.M. Sanders, K.B. Miller, V.L. Fulgoni III
J Aging Res Clin Practice 2013;2(2):168-173
Background: Breakfast and cereal consumption has been associated with higher diet quality, lower body weight and improved measures of cardiometabolic health. Objectives: To investigate the relationship between breakfast consumption, particularly ready-to-eat cereal, and anthropometric measures, likelihood of overweight/obesity, prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and other cardiometabolic risk factors in US adults. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: The 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), USA. Participants: Adults aged 19-70 years (n=14,316) divided into 2 groups: 19-50 years (n=9,292) and 51-70 years (n=5,024). Measurements: Three breakfast types were defined, ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC), Other Breakfast (OB) and No Breakfast (NB) using a 24 hour dietary recall. Sample weighted data were used to determine least square means ± SE by regression analysis with adjustment for covariates. Odds ratios for risk factors were determined by logistic regression with adjustment for covariates. Results: RTEC and OB consumption were associated with more favorable anthropometry, cardiometabolic measures, and lower prevalence of risk factors for MetS compared to NB in 19 to 50 year old adults. RTEC consumption, compared to OB, was associated with lower body weight, lower BMI, reduced abdominal adiposity and lower prevalence of risk factors for MetS in adults aged 19 to 50 years. There were no differences in likelihood of being overweight or obese or the presence of risk factors for MetS in the 51 to 70 year old adults based on breakfast type. Conclusion: Consumption of breakfast, particularly RTEC, may contribute to healthy aging through reduced risk of chronic disease.