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03/2014 journal articles

REVIEW OF NATURAL PRODUCTS ON PARKINSON’S DISEASE PATHOLOGY

M.M. Essa, N. Braidy, W. Bridge, S. Subash, T. Manivasagam, R.K. Vijayan, S. Al-Adawi, G.J. Guillemin

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(3):127-136

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This review examines evidence of plant-derived natural products and their constituents that have been shown to slow down or reverse the underlying neuronal degeneration observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD), with a focus on their effect on the modulation of dopaminergic neurotransission levels and motor function. During the last decade, there have been over 140 studies published that have investigated the anti-PD therapeutic potential of herbs, fruits, vegetables and spices, ornamental and parasitic plants, and fungi. Empirical evidence implicates phytochemicals may play a role in the prevention and mitigation of some of the intractable signs and symptoms of PD. The anti-PD effects exhibited by these natural products are considered to be due to their ability to modulate; reactive oxygen species production, neuroinflammation, dopamine production, excitotoxicity, metal homeostasis, mitochondrial function, and cellular signaling pathways, which are all disrupted in the PD brain. However, the precise neuroprotective mechanism of action of natural products for PD remains unclear. Research is necessary to further elucidate the mechanisms by which these compounds are efficacious in attenuating PD or controlling PD-related symptoms.

CITATION:
M.M. Essa ; N. Braidy ; W. Bridge ; S. Subash ; T. Manivasagam ; R.K. Vijayan ; S. Al-Adawi ; G.J. Guillemin (2014): REVIEW OF NATURAL PRODUCTS ON PARKINSON’S DISEASE PATHOLOGY. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.23

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NUTRITION STATUS IN COMMUNITY DWELLING OLDER POPULATION IN AN EGYPTIAN URBAN AREA

H.M.M. Abdelrahman, A.E.E. Elawam

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(3):137-143

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Objectives: To evaluate the nutrition status in community dwelling Egyptian older subjects, living in Cairo, and the factors that may be associated with malnutrition. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Egyptian social clubs, in Cairo. Participants: 318 older subjects, 60 years old and above. Measurements: Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment and Mini Nutritional Assessment. Results: The nutrition status of the sample was: 44 % (140 subjects) were well nourished, 41.5% (132 subjects) had risk of malnutrition and 14.5 % (46 subjects) were malnourished. the mean age of the well-nourished patients was 64 ± 3.16, while for malnourished patients was 72.3 ± 4.83 [P: <0.001]. Sex did not show a significant difference between well-nourished and malnourished patients [P: 0.35]. Also marital status did not show significant affection of nutritional status [P: 0.254]. While education level and employment status showed significant difference between well-nourished and malnourished patients [P: <0.001]. The functional state assessed by ADL showed a significant difference between well-nourished and malnourished patients [P: <0.007]. Also the Cognitive impairment was more among malnourished than well-nourished patients [P: 0. <0.001]. Depression and polypharmacy were significantly found more among malnourished than well-nourished patients [P: 0.009, 0. 001] respectively. logistic regression analysis revealed that increased age, low score of MMSE, less years of education and increased number of medications were independent risk factor for malnutrition. Conclusion: Malnutrition and risk of malnutrition were prevalent in community dwelling older population, especially with increased age, less education, living alone, unemployment, cognitive impairment, depression and taking multiple medications. So we recommend that nutritional assessment to be included in any assessment of elderly person.

CITATION:
H.M.M. Abdelrahman ; A.E.E. Elawam (2014): NUTRITION STATUS IN COMMUNITY DWELLING OLDER POPULATION IN AN EGYPTIAN URBAN AREA. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.24

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DIETARY CALCIUM INTAKE IN GROUPS OF ACTIVE AND SEDENTARY ELDERLY IN THE CITY OF SANTOS, SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

C. de Carvalho Furtado, I. Lombardi

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(3):144-147

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Introduction: Currently, 10% of the Brazilian population is more than 60 years old. Calcium is an essential element to the body, it is produced endogenously and only acquired through daily intake of foods that contain it. The inadequate intake of this nutrient increases the risk of osteoporosis, as well as other diseases, such as hypertension and colon cancer. Therefore, the present study had the objective of evaluating the consumption of dietary calcium by active and sedentary elderly in the city of Santos/SP- Brazil. Methods: Seventy elderly people of both genders were evaluated, on an average age of 69 and 75 years old for active and sedentary groups respectively. For nutritional assessment, we used 24-hour Dietary Recall and the quantification of calcium intake was done by software Avanutri 4.0. Weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI) were measured for the assessment of body composition. Results: The data of calcium intake were compared with the recommendations advocated by DRI, which is of 1,200mg/day. Both groups consumed lower amounts of the recommended. However, the group of active elderly had a greater consumption (625,3 and 546,1mg for men and women respectively) in relation to the group of sedentary elderly (517,9 and 501,5mg for men and women, respectively), but there was no statistical difference between the groups. The low consumption may reflect on bone health and other bodily mechanisms of the evaluated groups. Therefore, nutritional education work is indispensable to inform the population.

CITATION:
C. de Carvalho Furtado ; I. Lombardi (2014): DIETARY CALCIUM INTAKE IN GROUPS OF ACTIVE AND SEDENTARY ELDERLY IN THE CITY OF SANTOS, SAO PAULO, BRAZIL. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.25

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THE GLOBAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF VITAMIN D STATUS

M.H. Edwards, Z.A. Cole, N.C. Harvey, C. Cooper

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(3):148-158

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Objective: Vitamin D is an important component of calcium and phosphate metabolism, ensuring, with PTH and FGF23, adequate serum concentrations of these two analytes for optimal cell function and bone mineralisation. Despite a surge of interest in vitamin D physiology over the last decade, a single threshold for deficiency remains uncertain in functional terms, and it is clear that correlation between serum concentration of 25(OH)-vitamin D and disease outcomes is very poor at the level of the individual. In this review, we describe the physiology of vitamin D, its potential associations with disease, and relate, in detail, the epidemiology of vitamin D status across populations worldwide. Design: Through a comprehensive literature review, we identified relevant studies from Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, North America, Latin America, and Oceania. Results: Although rickets and osteomalacia are established potential consequences of vitamin D deficiency, evidence for low levels of vitamin D as a cause of the multitude of other health outcomes with which they have been linked is lacking. We observed geographical differences in serum 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations, which may be partly, but not wholly, explained by factors such as sunlight exposure, skin pigmentation, skin coverage, dietary choices, supplements, adiposity, malabsorption, disease, demographics and lifestyle. Conclusion: We conclude that low serum concentrations of 25(OH)-vitamin D appear common across the globe; the relevance of this observation to human health remains to be elucidated.

CITATION:
M.H. Edwards ; Z.A. Cole ; N.C. Harvey ; C. Cooper (2014): THE GLOBAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF VITAMIN D STATUS . The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.26

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INTENSIVE GLUCOSE CONTROL IN THE TREATMENT OF HYPERGLYCEMIA IN PATIENTS WITH AN ACUTE EXACERBATION OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

L. Gao, H. Ren, Q. Hao

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(3):159-162

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Background and Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of IGC in the treatment of hyperglycemia combined with AECOPD. Methods: A total of 267 consecutively hospitalized patients with AECOPD combined with hyperglycemia in the general wards of the East Ward of Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital and West China Hospital from May 2007 to August 2013 were included in this study. All the patients were allocated to either the IGC group or the control group according to the doctor’s recommendation. The short-term mortality rate as well as the duration and medical cost of the hospitalization were investigated. Results: The median length of the hospital stay was 15 days in the IGC group, whereas the median was 12 days (p=0.05) in the control group. The median medical cost was 8,866 Yuan in the IGC group, whereas this value was 8,051 Yuan in the control group. However, the medical costs, the mortality rates and the positive sputum culture rates were not statistically different between the two groups. There were more cases of hypoglycemia and hypokalemia in the IGC group than in the control group. Conclusions: Intensive glucose control treatment did not result in any benefits in the patients with hyperglycemia and AECOPD and may prolong the length of stay and increase the risk of hypoglycemia and hypokalemia.

CITATION:
L. Gao ; H. Ren ; Q. Hao (2014): INTENSIVE GLUCOSE CONTROL IN THE TREATMENT OF HYPERGLYCEMIA IN PATIENTS WITH AN ACUTE EXACERBATION OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY . The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.27

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MIDLIFE CIGARETTE SMOKING AND NEUROPSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS AMONG DEMENTED OUTPATIENTS

A. McMurtray, V. Krishna, B. Nakamoto, N. Diaz, B. Mehta, S. Aboutalib, E. Saito

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(3):163-166

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Background: Midlife cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk for both midlife neuropsychiatric symptoms and development of dementia later in life. Objective: This study was designed to extend knowledge of these relationships by assessing for increased risk of neuropsychiatric symptoms among demented outpatients related to midlife smoking habits. Design: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Patients seen in a community based outpatient clinic for treatment of dementia during a one year period. Participants: A total of 38 participants were included in this study, 22 with a history of midlife smoking and 16 lifetime non-smokers. Results: Midlife cigarette smoking was associated with midlife alcohol use (p = 0.023) and presence of delusions (p = 0.031) among demented outpatients. Conclusions: A history of midlife smoking is associated with increased frequency of delusions later in life among demented outpatients and may help identify those at higher risk for developing neuropsychiatric symptoms.

CITATION:
A. McMurtray ; V. Krishna ; B. Nakamoto ; N. Diaz ; B. Mehta ; S. Aboutalib ; E. Saito (2014): MIDLIFE CIGARETTE SMOKING AND NEUROPSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS AMONG DEMENTED OUTPATIENTS. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.28

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DOES THE MINI NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT-SHORT FORM PREDICT CLINICAL OUTCOMES IN YOUNGER REHABILITATION PATIENTS?

L. Wegener, S. James, A. Slattery, M. Satanek, M. Miller

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(3):167-173

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Objectives: To identify the nutritional status of younger patients on admission to rehabilitation using the Mini Nutritional Assessment – Short Form (MNA-SF) and determine whether the MNA-SF has predictive validity for clinical outcomes in this setting. Design: Retrospective case note audit. Setting: Rehabilitation Unit, Repatriation General Hospital, Adelaïde, Australia. Participants: Fifty four patients under 65 years (mean age 52.9±10 years, 54% female). Measurements: Case notes for adults admitted consecutively to rehabilitation were reviewed. Risk of malnutrition was categorised using the MNA-SF. Outcomes measured were length of stay (LOS), complications and poor participation during admission, change in function, discharge to higher level of care, and acute readmissions and mortality 18 months post discharge. Results: Fourteen (26%) subjects were malnourished and 28 (52%) were at risk of malnutrition as classified by the MNA-SF. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between patients classified as malnourished or at risk of malnutrition and those of normal nutritional status. Conclusion: Over three quarters of subjects were classified as malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. These patients were more likely to have adverse clinical outcomes than their well-nourished counterparts but the difference was not significant. Further research is required to investigate the validity of the MNA-SF and other nutrition screening and assessment tools for adults under 65 years old undergoing rehabilitation.

CITATION:
L. Wegener ; S. James ; A. Slattery ; M. Satanek ; M. Miller (2014): DOES THE MINI NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT-SHORT FORM PREDICT CLINICAL OUTCOMES IN YOUNGER REHABILITATION PATIENTS? . The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.29

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CAN CONTINUOUS, INTER-GENERATIONAL COOPERATION POSITIVELY IMPACT THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF ELDERLY ALZHEIMER’S SUFFERERS?: AN INTERIM REPORT

R. Rokkaku, A. Homma, S. Kobayashi, Y. Seki

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(3):174-177

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This article summarizes the impact of inter-generational cooperation on the quality of life of elderly Alzheimer’s sufferers. The study is a continuing, two-year intervention and reports the results of the first year. It consists of an intervention and a control group of eight and six sufferers, respectively, who have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Both groups attend day care services. The intervention group participates in the inter-generational program with children, while the control group does not. On the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Affect Rating Scale, three items have been proved statistically significant. Pleasure, Interest, and Contentment have increased with inter-generational cooperation. The magnitude of the change was not so remarkable as to influence QOL-AD at home. However, the present results may imply a reduction on the burden of the day care service staff and family carers. Another advantage may be in the educating of the children’s parents, whose understanding of dementia was poor.

CITATION:
R. Rokkaku ; A. Homma ; S. Kobayashi ; Y. Seki (2014): CAN CONTINUOUS, INTER-GENERATIONAL COOPERATION POSITIVELY IMPACT THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF ELDERLY ALZHEIMER’S SUFFERERS?: AN INTERIM REPORT. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.30

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PREVALENCE OF SARCOPENIA IN ELDERLY WITH DEMENTIA INSTITUTIONALIZED: A MULTICENTER STUDY

C.M. Sarabia Cobo, V. Pérez, C. Hermosilla, M.J. Nuñez, P. de Lorena

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(3):178-181

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Objective: Determine the prevalence of sarcopenia, applying the new diagnostic criteria in a group of institutionalized elderly with dementia, analyzing the possible association between sarcopenia, degree of dementia, and nutritional status. Method: Transversal, descriptive, multicenter study with 189 subjects diagnosed with dementia in middle phase. The current criteria for sarcopenia were assessed through several tests (bioimpedance, dynamometry, and physical performance tests). Nutritional status through the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was also assessed. Parametric tests (Student t test and ANOVA) were performed to compare the significant differences between the two stages of dementia according to gender, age, presence of sarcopenia, and MNA, among other tests. Results: 74% were female and the mean age was 82.3 years. Of the participants, 57.1 % were in stage 5 and 42.9 % in stage 6 in GDS. The MNA showed that 54.6 % had risk of malnutrition, 36.2 % were normal, and 9.2% had malnutrition. Of the subjects, 68.78% have shown signs of sarcopenia. There were significant differences for sarcopenia according to the phase of dementia and between sarcopenia and malnutrition status. Conclusions: To our knowledge it is the first study of its kind in Spain under the new criteria for diagnosis of sarcopenia. There seems to be a high percentage of sarcopenia among institutionalized elderly with dementia and this in turn appears to be related to dementia status and states of malnutrition. This syndrome has a significant impact on the population, so early detection is crucial; more studies of this type are required.

CITATION:
C.M. Sarabia Cobo ; V. Pérez ; C. Hermosilla ; M.J. Nuñez ; P. de Lorena (2014): PREVALENCE OF SARCOPENIA IN ELDERLY WITH DEMENTIA INSTITUTIONALIZED: A MULTICENTER STUDY . The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.31

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HIP FRACTURE IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: A PICTURE IN NEED OF CHANGE

E.I. O. Vidal, D.C. Moreira-Filho, R.S. Pinheiro, R.C. Souza, L.M. Almeida, K.R. Camargo Jr, P.J.F. Villas Boas, F.B. Fukushima, C.M. Coeli

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(3):182-188

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Objectives: To describe the clinical profile, patterns of care and mortality rates of aged patients who have undergone hip fracture surgical repair. Design: Retrospective patient record study. Setting: A public university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Participants: 352 patients aged 60 and older who underwent surgery for hip fracture between 1995-2000. Measurements: Sociodemographic data, type of fracture, cause of fracture, time from fracture to surgery, physical status, Charlson comorbidity index, type of surgery and anesthesia, access to in-hospital physiotherapy, use of antibiotic and thromboembolism prophylaxis, and mortality within one year after hospital admission. Results: Among 352 subjects, 74.4% were women. The mean age overall was 77.3 years. Very long delays from the time of fracture to hospital admission (mean 3 days) and from hospital admission to surgery (mean 13 days) were observed. Most femoral neck fractures (82.7%) were managed by hip arthroplasties, while 92.8% of the intertrochanteric fractures underwent internal fixation procedures. Less than 10% of patients received in-hospital physiotherapy. Mortality rates 30 days, 90 days and one year after hospital admission were 3.4%, 8.0% and 13.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence within the context of a developing country of major gaps in the quality of care of vulnerable older adults who suffered a hip fracture. Our findings suggest that hip fracture has not been treated as an urgent condition or a priority within the Brazilian public healthcare system. Further research should address current patterns of care for hip fracture in Brazil and in other developing countries.

CITATION:
E.I. O. Vidal ; D.C. Moreira-Filho ; R.S. Pinheiro ; R.C. Souza ; L.M. Almeida ; K.R. Camargo Jr ; P.J.F. Villas Boas ; F.B. Fukushima ; C.M. Coeli (2014): HIP FRACTURE IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: A PICTURE IN NEED OF CHANGE. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.32

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