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02/2014 journal articles

DOES LONG-TERM ADMINISTRATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES-ENRICHED DIET INFLUENCE GENERAL HEALTH STATUS PARAMETERS IN RATS?

H. Oszkiel, J. Wilczak, A. Prostek, D. Kamola, M. Hulanicka, M. Jank

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(2):63-71

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As the concept of diet supplementation with biologically active substances becomes more and more popular in humans, and manufacturers of the supplements encourage people to take multiple biologically active compounds simultaneously, we wanted to evaluate the influence of long term (14-months) use of biologically active substances-enriched diet (BASE–diet) on blood morphology, liver function, oxidative stress and antioxidant defence in rats. The experiment was conducted on 54 Sprague - Dawley rats divided into two experimental groups (fed with control or BASE-diet, both n=27). Control diet was a semi-synthetic diet formulated according to the nutritional requirements for laboratory animals (1). The BASE-diet was enriched with a mixture of polyphenolic compounds, β-carotene, probiotics, and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. None of the major blood parameters were influenced by the 14-months-long use of BASE-diet. The diet also did not influence the values of ALP, ALT, GGT and BIL in both the liver tissue and plasma after 3 and 14 months of feeding. However, a significant decrease of the TBARS was observed in the liver after 6 and 14 months application of the BASE-diet. Furthermore, GSH/GSSG ratio was increased, GSH-Px and GSSG-R activities were decreased, and a reduction of SOD activity was noted in rats fed BASE-diet, when compared to control animals. Our data clearly show that long-term use of diet enriched with different biologically active substances is completely safe, and may improve the antioxidant mechanisms in blood and liver.

CITATION:
H. Oszkiel ; J. Wilczak ; A. Prostek ; D. Kamola ; M. Hulanicka ; M. Jank (2014): DOES LONG-TERM ADMINISTRATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES-ENRICHED DIET INFLUENCE GENERAL HEALTH STATUS PARAMETERS IN RATS?. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.13

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S-EQUOL PREVENTS LOSS OF BONE STRENGTH IN RAT OSTEOPOROSIS MODEL

J.A. Yu-Yahiro, C.B. Ruff, B.G. Parks, V.S. Sinkov, I. Merchenthaler

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(2):72-78

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Background: To investigate the effect of S-equol, a selective estrogen receptor ß agonist produced in certain individuals by biotransformation of the soy isoflavone daidzein, on bone structure, bone strength, and metabolism in overiectomized rats. Design: Controlled animal study. Participants: Total of 75 female rats. Intervention: Animals were divided into 5 groups: ovariectomized (OVX), OVX+17-beta estradiol benzoate (EB), OVX+S-equol (30 mg/kg), OVX+S-equol (100 mg/kg), and SHAM. Animals received drug or vehicle for 60 days. At sacrifice, right femora and vertebrae (L3 and L4) were excised. Measurements: Bone density and structural parameters were measured by pQCT. Mechanical testing and quantitative histomorphometry were done. Blood markers of bone metabolism and uterine weights were measured. Results: Higher dose S-equol preserved mechanical strength of bone. Vertebral compressive strength, femoral bending strength, and femoral cortical thickness were not different between the S-equol (100 mg/kg) , SHAM, and EB groups and all were significantly higher than OVX and S-equol (30 mg/kg) groups. No differences were found in osteoclast numbers or vertebral bone mineral composition, and serum markers of bone metabolism did not follow the pattern of strength measures differences. Uterine weight in the higher dose S-equol group was significantly lower than in SHAM and EB groups. Conclusions: Treatment of OVX rats with S-equol (100 mg/kg) resulted in preservation of vertebral and femoral bone strength and volume not different from that in SHAM or EB rats. Higher dose S-equol caused less uterine stimulation than did endogenous or synthetic estrogen. These results suggest that S-equol warrants further study as a possible alternative to estrogen replacement for treatment of osteoporosis.

CITATION:
J.A. Yu-Yahiro ; C.B. Ruff ; B.G. Parks ; V.S. Sinkov ; I. Merchenthaler (2014): S-EQUOL PREVENTS LOSS OF BONE STRENGTH IN RAT OSTEOPOROSIS MODEL. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.14

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PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE, RESVERATROL, COENZYME Q10 AND CIANOCOBALAMINE SUPPLEMENTION IS ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN SUBJECTIVE MEMORY COMPLAINTS AND GERIATRIC DEPRESSION SCALE IN ADULTS AND OLDER PERSONS I

N. Rodrigues Tavares, A. Gomes, L. Tenreiro

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(2):79-81

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Memory loss is a major complaint among the elderly population. Claimed to enhance cognitive function and readily accessible in pharmacies and food stores, phospholipids supplementation has produced mixed findings in several studies. A group of healthy adults and elderly (n= 915) aged 65.65±11.10 years with an education level of 7.56±4.56 years participated in the study. Participants were submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Scale Memory Complaints (SMC) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Four individuals presented cognitive impairment, 874 presented memory complaints and 436 were above cut-off point for GDS. Subsequently, one women group (n=48) used phospholipids supplementation for 4 weeks. After the period of supplementation, a decrease in mean SMC and GDS values were observed. Phospholipids consumption over the course of 4 weeks significantly decreased SMC (p=0,000) and GDS (p=0.009) values in this women group.

CITATION:
N. Rodrigues Tavares ; A. Gomes ; L. Tenreiro (2014): PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE, RESVERATROL, COENZYME Q10 AND CIANOCOBALAMINE SUPPLEMENTION IS ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN SUBJECTIVE MEMORY COMPLAINTS AND GERIATRIC DEPRESSION SCALE IN ADULTS AND OLDER PERSONS IN PORTUGAL. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.15

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PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE ITALIAN VERSION OF RESILIENCE SCALE IN ADULTS AND ELDERLY HEALTHY SUBJECTS

N. Girtler, F. De Carli, J. Accardo, D. Arnaldi, M. Cutolo, B. Dessi, F. Famà, M. Ferrara, F. Nobili, A. Picco, A. Brugnolo

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(2):82-88

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Background: Resilience is a complex personality characteristic of people facing a significant change, adversity, distress, acute or chronic disease. The Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale is an appropriate instrument to study resilience and has been already validated in the Italian young-adult population. Objective: To verify psychometric properties of the Italian version of the RS scale in adults and elderly healthy subjects. Design: The participants filled out RS questionnaire; statistical analysis was performed to evaluate psychometric properties of the scale. Setting: University of Genoa: courses reserved for elderly people and Clinical Neurology outpatients’ department. Participants: 178 adults and elderly healthy subjects. Measurement: The Italian version of RS scale and three associate questionnaire (General Health Questionnaire, Ego-Resilience Scale, Beck Depression Inventory) were used to assess concurrent validity of RS, its reliability, stability, internal consistency and concurrent validity. Results: Time stability was assessed in a sub-sample of 48 subjects (Mean age = 68.89 yr, SD 7.54) by test-retest correlation (r=0.80). RS reliability was evaluated in the whole sample of 178 subjects (Mean age = 63.92 yr, SD 14.6) with an RS mean score of 138.43 (SD 14.6). Internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach alpha (α=0.86). Concurrent validity was assessed by correlation with General Health Questionnaire (r=-0.45), Ego-Resilience Scale (r=0.59) and Beck Depression Inventory (r=-0.31). Principal component analysis resulted into six components, labelled according to the best association with the five components hypothesized by Wagnild and Young (i.e.: meaningfulness, self-reliance, perseverance, existential aloneness, equanimity a and b). Conclusion: Our data indicate that the Italian version of the RS scale is a reliable tool in the adults and elderly subjects in order to promote interventions and stress-management to improve resilience and facilitate successful aging.

CITATION:
N. Girtler ; F. De Carli ; J. Accardo ; D. Arnaldi ; M. Cutolo ; B. Dessi ; F. Famà ; M. Ferrara ; F. Nobili ; A. Picco ; A. Brugnolo (2014): PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE ITALIAN VERSION OF RESILIENCE SCALE IN ADULTS AND ELDERLY HEALTHY SUBJECTS. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.16

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ADVERSE RESPIRATORY EVENTS DURING EATING/FEEDING OF LONG TERM CARE INSTITUTIONAL PATIENTS

E. Lubart, R. Segal, M. Belov, L. Sadogorsky, L. Valinsky, A. Leibovitz

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(2):89-92

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Background/ Objectives: Oropharyngeal Dysphagia is highly prevalent in long term care patients (LTC ) frequently raising concerns regarding aspiration during eating/ feeding .The aim of this study was to monitor and collect, for the first time, feeding related adverse respiratory events in LTC hospitalized patients. Design/Participance: 155 patients in the LTC wards of a geriatric hospital were followed for 29 weeks. Adverse respiratory events related to feeding such as choking or dyspnea were recorded. Patients were stratified according to the different stages of the Functional Outcome Swallowing Scale (FOSS). Results: There were 755 adverse respiratory events (24 choking events– 3%: and 731 dyspnea episodes – 97%) during 10780 patient days of the study. Calculated per patient days it makes 1 in 46 for choking and 1 in 13 for dyspnea. Adverse respiratory events occurred with similar frequency in the different groups regardless of FOSS stage. Conclusions: Our results indicate that regardless of the state of dysphagia and feeding method, the potential risk of feeding related respiratory events is similar among LTC elderly patients. Further studies from similar facilities could contribute to the evaluation of these data and eventually consider them as quality of care markers of the eating/feeding process in long term care patients.

CITATION:
E. Lubart ; R. Segal ; M. Belov ; L. Sadogorsky ; L. Valinsky ; A. Leibovitz (2014): ADVERSE RESPIRATORY EVENTS DURING EATING/FEEDING OF LONG TERM CARE INSTITUTIONAL PATIENTS. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.17

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MALNUTRITION RISK IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE

S. Lindskov, K. Sjöberg, A. Westergren, P. Hagell

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(2):93-99

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Background: Unintentional weight loss and undernutrition have been found common in Parkinson’s disease but its relation to other disease aspects is unclear. Objectives: To explore nutritional status in relation to disease duration in Parkinson’s disease, as well as associations between nutritional status and motor and autonomic features. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: South-Swedish outpatient Parkinson-clinic. Participants: Home-dwelling people with Parkinson’s disease (n=71), without significant cognitive impairment (mean age, 67.3 years; 56% men; mean disease duration, 6.3 years). Measurements: Parkinsonian motor symptoms, mobility, activity level, disability, dyskinesias, dysautonomia, under- and malnutrition risk screening (using MEONF II and MUST for undernutrition and SCREEN II for malnutrition) and anthropometric measures (BMI, handgrip strength, triceps skin-fold, mid-arm circumference and mid-upper arm muscle circumference) were recorded. The sample was divided into those with longer (n=34) and shorter disease duration (n=37) according to the median (5 years). Results: Longer disease duration was associated with more, disability, dyskinesias and dysautonomia than shorter duration (P≤0.04). Mean (SD) body weight and BMI were 80.3 (16.3) kg and 28.1 (4.8) kg/m2, respectively, and did not differ between duration groups (body weight, 80.9 vs. 79.6 kg; BMI, 28.0 vs. 28.3 kg/m2; P≥0.738). There were no differences in other anthropometric measures between duration groups (P≥0.300). BMI identified 4% and 62% as under- and overweight, respectively, and 4% exhibited undernutrition risk, whereas 87% were at risk for malnutrition. Nutritional and motor/dysautonomic variables showed relatively weak correlations (rs, ≤ 0.33), but people with orthostatic hypotension had lower BMI (26.7 vs 29.2 kg/m2; P=0.026) and lower handgrip strength (33.2 vs 41.6 kg; P=0.025) than those without orthostatic hypotension. Conclusion: Motor and autonomic features showed expected relationships with disease duration. In contrast to these observations, and to most previous reports on nutrition in PD, frequencies of underweight and undernutrition were low. However, malnutrition risk was high, emphasizing the need for regular clinical monitoring of nutritional status. The reasons for the preserved nutritional status have to be explored prospectively.

CITATION:
S. Lindskov ; K. Sjöberg ; A. Westergren ; P. Hagell (2014): Duration, nutrition, Parkinson’s disease, weight. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.18

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“MORE THAN JUST A MEAL”: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF THE VIEWS AND EXPERIENCES OF OLDER PEOPLE USING A MEALS ON WHEELS (MOW) SERVICE

K. Evans, F. Manning, K. Walton, V. Traynor, A.T. McMahon, K.E. Charlton

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(2):100-106

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Background: Community based Meal on Wheels (MOW) services contribute to promoting the independence of older people through the provision of home delivered meals. It is important to actively explore the views, expectations and experiences of clients to ensure their services are contemporary. Objectives: To explore the views and experiences of older people who are MOW clients about the meal service and the meaning of food and mealtimes. Design: A phenomenological approach using semi-structured face-to-face interviews which were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Line-by-line thematic analysis was undertaken until saturation was reached and codes, categories and final themes were agreed by all researchers. Setting: Two MOW services in regional New South Wales, Australia. Participants: Forty-two older people who were clients of the MOW services. Results: Four main themes were generated: (i) capturing perspectives on the quality and offerings of the service provision, (ii) relating the broad range of factors influencing food intake, (iii) acknowledging the critical social role food plays, and (iv) illustrating the physical and mental constraints that can limit food access and intake. Conclusions: The findings demonstrated the value older people put on the MOW services and factors which influenced their health, including the social role of food and constraints on their access to adequate food intake. The findings highlighted important opportunities for MOW to develop their services and ensure the service meets the contemporary needs of an ageing population.

CITATION:
K. Evans ; F. Manning ; K. Walton ; V. Traynor ; A.T. McMahon ; K.E. Charlton (2014): “MORE THAN JUST A MEAL”: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF THE VIEWS AND EXPERIENCES OF OLDER PEOPLE USING A MEALS ON WHEELS (MOW) SERVICE. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.19

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INCREASED ENERGY INTAKE AND A SHIFT TOWARDS HIGH-FAT, NON-STAPLE HIGH-CARBOHYDRATE FOODS AMONGST CHINA’S OLDER ADULTS, 1991-2009

K. Pan, L.P. Smith, C. Batis, B.M. Popkin

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(2):107-115

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Objective: We examined trends from 1991- 2009 in total energy intake and food group intake, and examine whether shifts varied by age or generation. Design: Longitudinal time series (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009). Setting: Nine provinces in China. Participants: Older Chinese aged ≥60 years (n=5,068) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1991-2009. Methods: Using three 24-hour recalls and a household food inventory collected over three consecutive days, the top twenty food group contributors to total energy intake from 1991- 2009 were identified, and the mean kilocalorie (kcal) difference between 1991 and 2009 for each food group was ranked. The top twenty food group contributors to total energy intake from 1991- 2009 were identified, and the mean kilocalorie (kcal) difference between 1991 and 2009 for each food group was ranked. Linear regression was used to examine changes in mean calorie intake of food groups between 1991 and 2009, adjusting for age, sex, and region. In addition, we examined changes in the mean kcal per capita intake to examine shifts by age group and generation. Results: Mean total energy intake increased significantly among older Chinese adults from 1379 total kilocalories in 1991 to 1463 kilocalories in 2009 (p< 0.001). Most food groups showed a significant increase in intake from 1991 to 2009, with plant oil, wheat buns, and wheat noodles showing the greatest increase. At the same age, more recent generations had more energy intake than earlier generations. An aging effect was observed, with energy intake decreasing with age, although more recent generations showed a smaller decrease in energy intake with aging. Conclusion: Older Chinese adults in recent generations show an increase in total calorie intake compared to older Chinese of earlier generations, paired with a less significant decrease in calorie intake as they age. Increased consumption of high-fat, non-staple high-carbohydrate foods such as plant oil and wheat buns suggests that diet quality of older Chinese adults is becoming less healthful in recent years.

CITATION:
K. Pan ; L.P. Smith ; C. Batis ; B.M. Popkin (2014): INCREASED ENERGY INTAKE AND A SHIFT TOWARDS HIGH-FAT, NON-STAPLE HIGH-CARBOHYDRATE FOODS AMONGST CHINA’S OLDER ADULTS, 1991-2009. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.20

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CONSUMPTION OF MANGOSTEEN FRUIT PULP POWDER (MX3) PROVIDES BENEFICIAL EFFECT ON KNEE DISCOMFORT NOT ASSOCIATED WITH INJURY. A DOUBLE BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED PILOT CLINICAL STUDY

R. Rodriguez, Z. Pietrzkowski, R. Keller, T. Reyes-Izquierdo

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(2):116-119

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Aim: To evaluate the effect of purple Mangosteen fruit pulp powder (MX3) on subjects with knee joint discomfort and reduced joint function. Methods: Subjects with self-reported knee discomfort were randomized and blinded for treatment with either a twice daily dose of 500mg daily dose of MX3 (Group 1), a single daily dose of 500mg MX3 (Group 2) or a once a day daily dose of placebo(Group 3) during a 28 day period. Symptoms of discomfort were evaluated using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) before the treatment and after 10 and 28 days of treatment. Blood samples were also collected for blood chemistry purposes. Results: Thirty six individuals were recruited for this study. Group 1 contained 2 male and 10 female subjects, average age 55 (SD ±5.2), BMI 27.8 (SD ±3.44). Group 2 contained 4 male and 8 female subjects age 59 (SD ±5.1), with a BMI of 28.6 (SD ± 3.7). Group 3 had 1 male and 11 female participants age 55 (SD ± 9.1) BMI 28.5 (SD ± 3.3). All participants completed the study. Data reported on day 28 for the McGill index showed a reduction of 56% on group 1, 46% on group 2 compared to a 9% in the placebo group (p=0.0004). WOMAC showed a 39% reduction on group 1, a 34% in group 2 and a 16% in placebo (p=0.04). CRP analysis in blood did not show any significant differences. Conclusions: Short-term use of MX3 did not show significant improvement at day 10 when compared to placebo. However, results indicate that long term use of MX3 might reduce knee joint discomfort, as indicated by WOMAC and McGill. Further clinical studies will confirm if a long term treatment with MX3 can improve knee joint function and reduce discomfort on subjects showing symptoms of osteoarthritis.

CITATION:
R. Rodriguez ; Z. Pietrzkowski ; R. Keller ; T. Reyes-Izquierdo (2014): CONSUMPTION OF MANGOSTEEN FRUIT PULP POWDER (MX3) PROVIDES BENEFICIAL EFFECT ON KNEE DISCOMFORT NOT ASSOCIATED WITH INJURY. A DOUBLE BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED PILOT CLINICAL STUDY. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.21

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NUTRITION EDUCATION AND COOKING CLASSES IMPROVE DIET QUALITY, NUTRIENT INTAKE, AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OF HOME-DWELLING OLDER PEOPLE – A PILOT STUDY

S.K. Jyväkorpi, K.H. Pitkälä, H. Kautiainen, T.M. Puranen, M.L. Laakkonen, M.H. Suominen

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(2):120-124

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Objective: To determine the impact of nutritional education combined with cooking classes on older people’s nutrition and psychological well-being (PWB). Design: Intervention study using pre- and post-test comparisons. Setting: Non-governmental organization’s cooking school facilities in Helsinki, Finland. Participants: 54 home-dwelling healthy older adults. Main Outcome Measure: Three-day food diaries, Index of Diet Quality (IDQ), and Psychological Well-Being scale (PWB) completed before and after the course were used to measure changes in overall diet quality, nutrient intake and, PWB. Analysis: Nutrient intake, IDQ, and PWB score were statistically compared using pre- and posttest analyzes with t-test paired bootstrap test. Results: Mean age of the participants was 69 years, and 90% were females. At baseline, 28 % had a diet with poor nutritional quality and 7% were at risk of malnutrition according to Mini-Nutritional Assessment. Participants improved IDQ (p=.013), vitamin C (p=.019) and fiber (p=.027) intakes, and PWB (p=.02). Effect sizes varied from small to moderate. Conclusions: Nutrition education and guidance combined with cooking classes may improve older adults’ diet quality, nutrient intake, and PWB. New innovative practices are needed to train older people about nutrition and to socially activate them to prevent future nutritional problems.

CITATION:
S.K. Jyväkorpi ; K.H. Pitkälä ; H. Kautiainen ; T.M. Puranen ; M.L. Laakkonen ; M.H. Suominen (2014): NUTRITION EDUCATION AND COOKING CLASSES IMPROVE DIET QUALITY, NUTRIENT INTAKE, AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OF HOME-DWELLING OLDER PEOPLE – A PILOT STUDY . The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.22

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